In general, the effect of sample length on breaking strength has been shown that the mean measured the strength of a specimen decreases as the sample length is increased. This fact is well known as the “weak-link” effect.
Crimp is a term to describe the waviness of a fiber. We can also describe this in terms of the force or energy required to uncrimp a fiber. It’s expressed in percentage. A crimped fiber placed on a flat plane is l0 and the length of the same fiber when the crimp is removed by applying a tension is l, then the crimp is given by …
When a load is applied on a specimen constantly for a period of time, the specimen initially extends rapidly giving the instantaneous effect and then less rapidly which yields to time dependent effect.
When an external force is applied to a fiber, it is balanced by the internal force development in the molecular structure of the fiber. By increasing the stresses, material will deform and follow the load-elongation/stress –strain curve.