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Identification of Given Textile Fibre Sample

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Identification of Given Textile Fibre Sample

Object:

  1. To know about the physical properties of sample.
  2. To know about the chemical properties of sample.
  3. To identify the type of sample fibre.

Atmospheric condition:

  1. Wet condition: –   26 ° c. & Dry condition: – 30° c.
  2. Difference between wet and dry bulb = 30° c-26 ° c.  = 4° c
  3. So, relative humidity (RH) = 70 %

Sample no:  01

 Visual properties:      

  1. Colour   : White
  2. Handle  : Soft handle

Physical test:

Preliminary Sorting Test by Heating:   We took small tuft of fibres hold in forceps and brought it slowly up to but not into a small non-luminous flame.

Then observe the condition:

Obs. no.                               Behavior         Remark
     1.                 Does not shrink from flame or melt Non-thermoplastic

 

Chemical test:

Obs. no.         Chemical                     Behavior        Remark
         Cold        Hot
     1. Phenol    Unchanged   Unchanged
     2. Acetic acid    Unchanged   Unchanged
     3. Nitric acid    Unchanged   Dissolve
     4. Sulphuric acid    Unchanged   Dissolve     May be cotton

 

Confirmation Test:

Obs. no.          Chemical                   Behavior         Result
       Cold         Hot
     1.     Sulphuric acid    Unchanged      Dissolve         Cotton

 

Sample No: 02

Visual properties:  

  1. Colour   : White
  2. Handle  : Soft.

Physical test:

Preliminary sorting test by heating: We took small tuft of fibres hold in forceps and brought it slowly up to but not into a small non-luminous flame.

Then observe the condition:

Obs. no.                                    Behavior          Remark
     1. Shrink from flame or melts with the formation of bead      Thermoplastic

 

For thermoplastic fibre:

Bring a small tuft of fibres into a small non-luminous flame –

Obs. no.       Behavior    Odor         Residue         Remark
     1. Melts then burns

(smoky flame)

Aromatic Glossy brown bead

(not crushable)

May be Polyester

 

Chemical test:

Obs. no.        Chemical                    Behavior        Remark
      Cold         Hot
     1. Sulphuric acid   Unchanged   Unchanged
     2. Dimethyl formamide   Unchanged   Unchanged
     3. Phenol   Unchanged   Dissolve May be Polyester
     4. Sodium hydroxide   Unchanged   Unchanged

 

Confirmation Test:

Obs. no.          Chemical                    Behavior           Result
      Cold         Hot
    1.            Phenol   Unchanged     Dissolve         Polyester

 

Sample no:  03

Visual properties: 

  1. Colour  : Bluish white
  2. Handle  : Soft

Physical test:

Preliminary sorting test by heating: We took small tuft of fibres hold in forceps and brought it slowly up to but not into a small non-luminous flame.

Then observe the condition:

Obs. no.                                    Behavior          Remark
    1 Shrink from flame or melts with the formation of bead      Thermoplastic

 

For non- thermoplastic fibre:

Bring a small tuft of fibres into a small non-luminous flame-

Obs. no.      Behavior     Odor         Residue          Remark
    1 Fuses then burns (smoky flame)  Sweetish       Dark colour

Hard bead but brittle

   May be Acrylic

 

Chemical Test:

Obs. no.         Chemical                   Behavior          Remark
      Cold         Hot
     1. Phenol   Unchanged  Colour change
     2. Dimethyl formamide   Unchanged    Dissolve    May be acrylic
     3. Nitric acid   Unchanged   Unchanged
     4. Sulphuric acid   Unchanged    Dissolve    May be acrylic

 

Confirmation Test:

Obs. no.          Chemical                   Behavior           Result
        Cold         Hot
    1. Dimethyl formamide      Unchanged     Dissolve            Acrylic

 

Sample no: 04

Visual properties:    

  1. Colour  : White
  2. Handle : Harsh

Physical test:

Preliminary sorting test by heating: We took small tuft of fibres hold in forceps and brought it slowly up to but not into a small non-luminous flame. Then observe the condition:

Obs. no.                               Behavior           Remark
     1            Does not shrink from flame or melt   Non-thermoplastic

 

For non- thermoplastic fibre:

Bring a small tuft of fibres into a small non-luminous flame –

Obs. no.                               Behavior         Remark
 

1

     Burn with irregular spurting flame, leaving a black inflated, easily powdered residue & emits a smell of burnt hair.          Protein

(Silk & Wool)

 

Chemical Test:

Obs. no.        Chemical                   Behavior          Remark
        Cold          Hot
     1. Phenol     Unchanged    Unchanged
     2. Dimethyl formamide     Unchanged    Unchanged
     3. Sulphuric acid     Unchanged    Dissolve      May be silk
     4. Sodium hydroxide     Unchanged    Dissolve      May be wool

 

Confirmation Test:

Obs. no.         Chemical                   Behavior          Result
        Cold         Hot
    1.   Sodium hydroxide     Unchanged      Dissolve           Wool

 

Conclusion:

I would like to thank our respected teacher for the important instructions. I am also grateful to our lab assistants for their kind help. This experiment helps me to know about the fabric abrasion resistance and its measuring test that is very important for textile testing. I think this will be very helpful in my future life.

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