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Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence | Textile Study Center

Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence

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Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj

Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj

Co-founder , Admin & Author at Textile Study Center
Student of Bangladesh University of Textiles (BUTEX) Department: Apparel Engineering
Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj
Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj
Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj

Latest posts by Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj (see all)

Part 1: Optical Properties of Textile Fibers

Part 2: Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence

Part 3: Reflection and Luster

Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence

Birefringence

Most oriented fiber can be characterized by two principle refractive indices one parallel to the fiber axis (nιι)  and another perpendicular to the fiber axis (n). Here, the subscripts indicates the vibration direction of light waves.

Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence | Birefringence properties | Measurement of birefringence | Why is birefringence so important | Relation among refractive index, density and swelling | Textile Study Center | textilestudycenter.com

                           Fig: Principle refractive indices of fiber

So, the difference between the refractive index indices of the fiber in a direction at parallel to the fiber axis and in a direction at right angles to the fiber axis is called birefringence of that fiber. Birefringence is responsible the phenomenon of double reflection.


Birefringence(Δn) = nιι-n

Where, nιι& n are the refractive indices in a direction at parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis respectively.

When fiber molecules are parallel to the fiber axis, then the fiber is more electron polarized.

Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence | Birefringence properties | Measurement of birefringence | Why is birefringence so important | Relation among refractive index, density and swelling | Textile Study Center | textilestudycenter.com

∴Electron polarization↑→   Vfiber  ↓→ n ↑→Birefringence ↑

Birefringence property depends on the following factors

The magnitude of the birefringence depends on two factors: the degree of orientation of the molecules and the degree of asymmetry of the molecules themselves. If all the atoms in a molecule are arranged in a straight chain Fig. (a), the bond polarisabilities are greatest along the line joining the atoms, then a high birefringence will be expected. However, the actual molecules in fibers do not have this form and their birefringence will be reduced for two reasons.

 

Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence | Birefringence properties | Measurement of birefringence | Why is birefringence so important | Relation among refractive index, density and swelling | Textile Study Center | textilestudycenter.com



⦿ Firstly, most main chains have a zigzag form Fig. (b) provided that the bonds diverge from the main axis by less than about 55°, this still gives a positive birefringence. Example, the value of the birefringence of polyester fiber is 0.188.

⦿ Secondly, there will be side groups attached to the main chain, as in Fig. (c), and these will have the effect of providing atomic bonds at right angles to the main axis. This will increase the value of n and reduce the birefringence. In triacetate and acrylic fibers, the side groups have a greater effect than the main chain, and the birefringence is negative. Example, the value of the birefringence of triacetate fiber is -0.005.

Measurement of birefringence

The measurement of birefringence is an important method for studying the molecular orientation in polymer fibers. Because, both the refractive index and birefringence of fibers change with increase in molecular orientation.

The birefringence of a fiber can be measured by directly, by determining the retardation or difference in optical path length. Science the optical path length equals the product of the refractive index and the thickness of specimen through which the light passes.

So, optical path retardation = (N +δN)λ

                                                   = (nιι-n)×t

                                                   = Birefringence × Thickness

Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence | Birefringence properties | Measurement of birefringence | Why is birefringence so important | Relation among refractive index, density and swelling | Textile Study Center | textilestudycenter.com

Where,

λ = wave length

N +δN = total number of wavelengths

nιι = refractive index for light polarized parallel to the fiber axis

n⊥ = refractive index for light polarized perpendicular to the fiber axis

Note1: Total no of weave length=no. of full wave (N) + no. of frictional wave (δN)

Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence | Birefringence properties | Measurement of birefringence | Why is birefringence so important | Relation among refractive index, density and swelling | Textile Study Center | textilestudycenter.com



Note2: Birefringence may also be determined by measuring the retardation with the corresponding thickness of the fiber and calculated with the following formula:

Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence | Birefringence properties | Measurement of birefringence | Why is birefringence so important | Relation among refractive index, density and swelling | Textile Study Center | textilestudycenter.com

Why is birefringence so important in fiber science?

When fibers absorb a large amount of moisture, water molecules mainly enter the amorphous phase and change its refractive angle. Therefore, in wet fibers, the refractive index difference between the crystalline and amorphous phase become larger and the form of birefringence starts to make contribution to the total fiber birefringence. The effect of from birefringence become significant only when the moisture regain is greater than 15%.

Optical orientation factor is generally defined as the average angle of inclination of the chain molecules in the crystalline regions with respect of fiber axis. Mathematically,

f= 0.5[3cos2θ-1]

Where

 θ = angle between the elongation direction and main optical axis.

Here,

 = 1.0 for maximum parallel orientation (θ=0)

= -0.5 for maximum perpendicular orientation (θ=90)

f = 0 for random orientation

The birefringence values can be related to optical orientation factor or the average angle of orientation of the molecule.

Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence | Birefringence properties | Measurement of birefringence | Why is birefringence so important | Relation among refractive index, density and swelling | Textile Study Center | textilestudycenter.com

Where, 

= optical orientation factor

Δn = birefringence of the experimental sample

Δn’ = birefringence value of a perfectly oriented specimen

θ = average angle of orientation of the chain molecules



Relation among refractive index, density and swelling

The refractive index of fibers is affected by the fiber density. For many fibers, the relationship between refractive index and fiber density (ρ) can be expressed by Gladstone and Dale’s law:

Birefringence | Fiber Birefringence | Birefringence properties | Measurement of birefringence | Why is birefringence so important | Relation among refractive index, density and swelling | Textile Study Center | textilestudycenter.com

If the average reflective index is used, the value of constant is 0.3570.

A similar relationship can be obtained between the refractive index (nm) and volume vm of a mixture of different components.

Vm(nm-1) = v1(n1-1) + v2(n2-1) + v3(n3-1) +… … … …

Where v1, v2, v3, … and n1, n2, n3, … are the reflective indices and volumes of the individual components. The refractive index of water is 1.333. So that, the effect of moisture on the refractive index can be described by:

vMR(nMR-1) = v0(n0-1) + 0.333MR

Where,

v0 = volume of 1 gm of dry fiber

vMR = volume of sample fiber at a frictional moisture reign of MR

n0 = refractive index of dry fiber

nMR = refractive index of moisture fiber

The equation applies to the refractive index nιι & n and we find how the birefringence varies with the moisture vs swelling of the fibers:

vMR( nιι – n)MR = V0( nιι – n)


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Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj

Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj

Co-founder , Admin & Author at Textile Study Center
Student of Bangladesh University of Textiles (BUTEX) Department: Apparel Engineering
Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj
Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj
Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj

Latest posts by Md Sohanur Rahman Sobuj (see all)

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