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Properties of Cotton Fibers | Textile Study Center

Properties of Cotton Fibers

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Md. Omar Faruk
Student of National Institute of Textile Engineering and Research
Md. Omar Faruk

Properties of Cotton Fibers Considered by Cotton Spinners

Properties of Cotton Fibers Considered by Cotton Spinners |Flow chart of carded yarn production|Flow chart of combed yarn production|Properties of cotton fibers considered by cotton spinners|Fiber fineness|Rating of MIC value|Maturity|Fiber length|Fiber strength|Fiber cleanness|Fiber color|Fiber elongation|Textile Study Center| textilestudycenter.com

Spinning Technology  for Cotton Fibre: 

Flow chart of carded yarn production:

Input

Machine

Output

Bale

Blow Room

Card mat

Card mat

Carding

Card sliver

Card sliver

Breaker draw frame

Drawn sliver

Drawn sliver

Finisher draw frame

Drawn sliver

Drawn sliver

Simplex

Roving

Roving

Ring

Yarn


Flow chart of combed yarn production:

Input

Machine

Output

Bale

Blow Room

Card mat

Card mat

Carding

Card sliver

Card sliver

Breaker draw frame

Drawn sliver

Drawn sliver

Lap former

Lap

Lap

Comber

Combed sliver

Combed sliver

Finisher draw frame

Drawn sliver

Drawn sliver

Simplex

Roving

Roving

Ring

Yarn

 

Properties of cotton fibers considered by cotton spinners:

1 . Fiber fineness: Fiber fineness is measured in Micronaire value (MIC). The higher the micronaire value of fiber the coarser the fiber.

Rating of MIC value-

MIC

Description

Less than 3.0

Very fine

3.0~3.6

Fine

3.7~4.7

Medium

4.8~5.4

Coarse

5.5 to above

Very coarse

Fiber fineness influences the number of fibers in the cross section of yarn. The finer the fiber the higher the number of fiber in yarn cross section.



2 . Maturity: The maturity of cotton is defined in terms of the development of cell wall. A fully mature fiber has a well developed thick cell wall. On the other hand, an immature fiber has a very thin cell wall.

If,

M.R. = 0.85 Good fiber
 M.R. = 0.75  Average fiber
M.R  =  0.65 Poor fiber

 

Immature fiber leads to :

  1. Nepping
  2. Loss of yarn strength
  3. Varying dye ability
  4. High proportion of short fibers

3 . Fiber length: The average length of spinnable fiber is called staple length. The quality, count, strength etc. depend on the staple length of fiber. Normally the higher the staple length of fiber the higher the yarn quality.

Staple length

Category

1” or less

Short staple

1 ” to 1 ”

Medium staple

1 ” to 1 ”

Long staple


4 . Fiber strength: The higher the fiber strength the higher the yarn and fabric strength. Very weak cottons tend to rupture during processing both in blow room and carding, creating short fibers and consequently deteriorate yarn strength and uniformity. Minimum strength for a textile fiber is approximately 6 CN/tex.

Some significant breaking strength of fibers are:

Polyester 35~60 CN/tex
 Cotton  15~40 CN/tex
   Wool   12~18 CN/tex


5 . Fiber cleanness: In addition to usable fibers, cotton stock contain foreign matter of various kinds:

Vegetable matter  Husk portions, seed fragments, stem fragments, leaf fragments wood fragments.

Mineral material  sand, dust, coal.

Other foreign matters  metal fragments cloth fragments, packing materials.

Accepted the range of foreign materials to the bale:

  Up to 1.2%     Very clean
    1.2% to 2.0% clean
     2.0% to 4.0% Medium
  4.0% to 7.0%   Dirty
    7.0% to above  very dirty

According to the international committee for cotton testing methods the following types are to be distinguished:

Trash above 500 µm
Dust  (50~500)µm
 Micro dust (15~50)µm
Breathable below 15 µm

6 . Fiber color: color is particularly important as a measure of how well a yarn or fabric will dye or bleach. Instrumental techniques for determining the color of the sample have only now reached the industry, HVI measurement of color provides reasonably accurate results of average reflectance and yellowness in a sample.

7 . Fiber elongation: Elongation is specified as a percentage of the starting length. The greater crease-resistance of wool compared with cotton arises

for example from the difference in their elongations, cotton-6~10%, wool-25~45%




(110)

Md. Omar Faruk
Student of National Institute of Textile Engineering and Research
Md. Omar Faruk

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